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Urine Analysis (Urine R/M)                                 

As the name sounds, the Urine Analysis is one of the commonly prescribed medical tests that is conducted to evaluate different parameters from the patient for the signs of common conditions and diseases and is also called as Urine Routine and Microscopy (Urine R/M), as the scrutiny is carried out using a microscope. The Urine R/M test is one of the widely prescribed medical tests, and if you have been prescribed the same, then this write-up is a must know for you to get a clear idea regarding the need and the procedure to be performed.

Symptoms to Perform a Urine Analysis Test

When a doctor observes the following symptoms, they prescribe to go forward with the Urine R/M test.

  •         Burning on urination
  •         High frequency of urination
  •         Presence of blood in the urine
  •         Symptoms of urinary tract infection/ bladder infection
  •         Symptoms of kidney failure
  •         Continuous fever
  •         Severe back pain
  •         Edema or swelling
  •         Loss of appetite
  •         Nausea or vomiting
  •         Itching, Twitching
  •         Metallic taste in the mouth

What is the Purpose of a Urine R/M Analysis?

The prescribed Urine R/M test is conducted to monitor the following conditions:

  •         Cancer
  •         Kidney Disease
  •         Urinary Tract Infection
  •         Parasitic Infection
  •         Viral Infection
  •         Prostate Infection
  •         Liver Disease
  •         Yeast Infection
  •         Reactions to Medicines

Apart from the points mentioned above, the Urine R/M test is conducted to analyze the following:

  •         Checking the colour and odour of urine
  •         To measure the level of dissolved solid substances
  •         The acidity level of urine
  •         Test protein, sugar, bilirubin and other substances
  •         Blood level in the urine


Components of a Urine Analysis Test

The urine analysis is proceeded ahead to measure the different parts:

  •         Ketone bodies: Ketones are metabolic end-products of fatty-acid metabolism, which are formed in the liver. The presence of ketone bodies can be found in urine once the fats are burned to extract energy.
  •         RBCs: These are the Red Blood Cells that carry the oxygen and carbon dioxide through the bloodstream. The RBCs are also known as red corpuscles or erythrocytes.
  •         Protein Level: It is an essential micronutrient that is essential to build muscle mass. They serve as the building blocks of the body tissue and also serves as the fuel source that provides energy density and carbohydrates.
  •         Urobilinogen: Referred to as a bi-product of bilirubin production, the urobilinogen gets formed in the intestines due to the bacterial action caused by bilirubin.
  •         Leucocytes: Also called the White Blood Cells (WBCs), these are the cells of the immune system that provokes the body to fight against infection.
  •         Crystals: Presence of crystals in urine is called crystalluria, which indicates organ dysfunction or even the presence of urinary tract stones.
  •         Epithelial Cell: These are the body cells that line the surfaces of your body, which are widely found on the skin, blood vessels, urinary tracts and organs.

The Sample Collection Process

To proceed with the urine analysis process, Mid-Stream Urine (not at the beginning and at the end) is collected in a sterile container. However, one must take care to clean the genitals before proceeding for the urine collection process. Once received, it needs to be refrigerated or kept at a cool place during the collection period.

Pre-Test or Precautions

No preparations are required for the test.

Interpretation of the Results

Once the test gets performed, the results get interpreted as follows:


Reference Range



Colourless, dark yellow, pale

Stained by certain foods



Foods, Presence of Propofol, Chlorpromazine, Thioridazine, Ex-lax



Vitamin C, Presence of Rifampin, phenazopyridine



Asparagus, Vitamin B, Methylene Blue, Propofol, Amitriptyline



Presence of Methylene blue, Indomethacin, Amitriptyline, Triamterene, Cimetidine, Promethazine



Bacteriuria in patients with urinary catheters



Gilbert syndrome, Tyrosinemia, Hepatobiliary disease



Alkaptonuria, Malignant Melanoma



Chyluria, Pyuria, Phosphate Crystals



No bacterial infection



Positive, Presence of WBCs in urine



Pyuria: WBC>10



Positive= presence of bacteria that reduce nitrate



Hematuria common in infection

Epithelial Cells


Good urine sample



Above the range states high presence of urea-splitting organism (e.g. presence of Proteus Mirabilis)


Although this test needs no preparation, you need to make sure that your healthcare service provider is aware of the medicines and supplements that you have been consuming.